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IPSO is a First Organisation in India which is engaged in the field of patient safety education.

IPSO will be a first organisation in India which will take the ownership and responsibility of educating the healthcare workers in patient safety. While taking the example from the developing countries as below, these countries already have governance and ownership of patient safety in place,


All these institutions (Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, Administrative units e.g. regions, scientific medical societies, healthcare organizations,) have responsibilities, as well as the universities who have certain autonomy in devising their curricula on patient safety. The Ministry of Health provides the legal framework for the education of doctors and other health care workers. Health managers do not fall in the competency of the Ministry of Health.


The federal (national) government decides upon the basic contents but the regions/communities organise and manage the different programmes in the universities and higher education institutes on patient safety.


Ministry of Science Education and Sports; scientific medical societies (training for health professionals); healthcare organisations and the Chambers of Doctors, Nurses and Midwifes. Also the Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare is responsible for education and training in patient safety.


The Ministry of Education is responsible for the undergraduate education; for the healthcare professionals and healthcare managers the responsibility lies with the Ministry of Health as well as Scientific Societies and Health Professional Associations and regulatory bodies


Universities and medical faculties are responsible for undergraduate education (also in patient safety), whereas healthcare professionals’ training is the responsibility of the National Health Board, the regions and healthcare organizations. The responsibility of training medical specialists is divided between regions, specialists and the public administration body.


Ministry of Education, healthcare organizations.


Ministry of Health is responsible for the postgraduate education for physicians and dentists; the Ministry of Education for the undergraduate studies; administrative units e.g. regions, scientific medical societies are responsible for the continuing professional education.


The Ministry of Higher Education is in charge for doctors, pharmacists, dentists and midwives. The Ministry of Health is responsible for the other healthcare professionals (including technical and management functions). Other bodies cooperate, among which the National Authority for Health.


Ministry of Health holds the main responsibility for education and training of undergraduates: doctors, dentists, pharmacists and physiotherapists. The Ministry of Health also holds the main responsibility for education and training of nurses and midwives. They undergo a sort of vocational training at schools of nursing.


Responsibility held by the Ministry of Human Resources (includes secretary of higher education responsible for undergraduates, and secretary of healthcare responsible for the training of health professionals and health managers).


Ministry of Education and universities are responsible for education and training of undergraduates. After the university degree it is mandatory for all health professionals to participate in the Continuous Education Program to get a defined number of credits every year, on specific issues defined at the national, regional and local level; patient safety is one of these topics. The Ministry of Health since last year verifies how many courses are organized according to these specific issues, a part of them are on patient safety.


The responsibility for medical education of undergraduates, health professionals and health managers lies with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education. Universities are responsible for undergraduate education and training process.


This is a shared responsibility between Ministry of Health, scientific medical societies, healthcare organizations and university, regarding the postgraduate training programs.


Responsibility for education and training of healthcare professionals lies with the Ministry of Education and Research. Recently changes are introduced in the system of education. The Directorate of Health is revising the structure and content specialist medical training, and patient safety will probably be a part of this. Today patient safety is mandatory in one of the four medical schools (University of Oslo). There is also a five year national program on patient safety including quality improvement and focusing on patient safety in healthcare delivery.


Overall responsibility of the Ministry of Health, also of the universities for the undergraduate programs. The Centre for Postgraduate Healthcare education (CMKP) is responsible for postgraduate and life-long learning. Patient safety is not yet a directly voiced module at all levels of education and training.


The Ministry of Education holds the responsibility for the undergraduates; health professionals and health managers are under the Ministry of Health and scientific medical societies’ responsibility.


Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport have the responsibility for the education of healthcare professionals in higher education in universities and colleges. Patient safety in health care provision is incorporated in the selected subjects in particular, focused on practical skills, such as infection prevention and control, quality improvement tools provided health care, including nursing care, the risks of invasive procedures and practices, adverse drug reactions. Ministry of Health is responsible for the undergraduate education on patient safety. Safety and quality of health care is included in the minimum standards of education published in the decree of the Ministry of Health no.12422/2010 – OL laying down minimum standards for specialized study programs, minimum standards for certification programs, and minimum standards for programs of continuing education and their structure, as amended.


The Ministry of Education is in charge of the undergraduate education of health professionals. The Ministry of health (in some aspects) and the regions are in charge of the continuous training of health professionals.

United Kingdom

The responsibility is of the Department of Health; administrative units; scientific medical societies; healthcare organisations and others.

Undergraduate and junior doctors: the General Medical Council (GMC) publishes every 5 years a document currently called “Tomorrow’s Doctors” which sets out the required Learning Outcomes that doctors have to demonstrate in order to practice. Each medical school uses these to devise their own curriculum.

Specialist doctors / Consultants: every 5 years their Royal College (regulatory body) publishes a specialist curriculum – this does not happen at the same time but is staggered. Some of this is delivered by the Royal Colleges and some by other providers but the latter have to be accredited by the Royal College.

Nurses and AHPs: similar – their regulatory body publishes learning outcomes and providers devise curricula to include these. Managers: much more ad hoc. Initial training for graduate entrants in to the NHS – some managers are clinicians who have moved from their clinical field – responsibility for their training therefore tends to vary.


The state is responsible for higher education at undergraduate and graduate level. In Swedish health care, the health care provider is responsible for in-service training. Ministry of Education and Research has the responsibility for education of undergraduates through different universities and nursing schools. All medical and nursing schools have patient safety on the agenda. Administrative units e.g. regions: county councils’ responsibility for providing health care encompasses ensuring patient safety and in-service training for all healthcare employees.